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  Productos y Servicios > Termografía > Libros y software relacionados con el Infrarrojo y     la Fotonica


  1-TESTEO Y EVALUACIÓN DE SISTEMAS DE IMÁGENES INFRARROJOS
  TESTING AND EVALUATION OF INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEMS

Second edition
Gerald C. Holst

Covers testing methods for:

-FLIRs
-INFRARED SEARCH-AND-TRACK
-MACHINE VISION
-LINE SCANNERS


This clearly written book provides all the quantitative and qualitative metrics that are used to characterize imaging system performance. It illustrates the latest measurement concepts, data reduction, and analyses techniques. Each test is described in detail and then summarized in a concise test procedure. The possible causes of data variances are listed. Numerous examples of unambiguous system specifications are given. The effects of sampling on test targets and data are clearly illustrated. You will be able to differentiate between observer variability and system response during MRC and MRT testing. The book highlights the difference between poor system performance, peculiarities of the system under test, and measurement errors.

This book is for managers, specification writers, and test engineers involved with all phases of imaging system characterization ranging from satisfying customer requirements to insuring that specifications are unambiguous and testable.


PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Image Quality 3-D Noise Model
Test Philosophy  NEDT
General Measuring Techniques   Fixed   Pattern   Noise
Focus Methods Non-uniformity
System Resolution    Contrast Transfer Function
Signal Transfer Function     Modulation Transfer Function
Aperiodic Transfer Function Machine Vision Performance
277 figures, 78 tables, 222 references, 422+xviii pages




  2  -FORMACIÓN DE CCD , CÁMARAS  Y PANTALLAS
CCD ARRAYS, CAMERAS, and DISPLAYS
SECOND EDITION
Gerald C. Holstt


  This completely revised book features:

-CCD and intensified CCD systems
-CID and CMOS technology
-Signal-to-noise ratio
-Minimum illumination definitions


This comprehensive book provides CCD array architecture concepts and operation (full-frame, frame transfer, interline transfer, progressive scan, and time-delay and integration or TDI). Camera specifications are traced to array performance parameters. It provides the background material that is essential to specify arrays and cameras using radiometric or photometric concepts.

Since image quality can only be assessed by visual interpretation, the display and observer are integral parts of the imaging "system." CRT display performance and the resolution/addressability ratio are covered in detail.

Numerous examples illustrate sampling theory and aliasing. Noise analysis includes random, shot, fixed pattern, and quantization noise. Although not truly a noise, photoresponse nonuniformity is included with the other noise components. Camera design includes "aperture" correction, gamma compensation, and compatibility with current video standards. Other topics include dark current, responsivity, dynamic range, and intensified CCDs.

The system analyst will use the modulation transfer function, signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum resolvable contrast concepts to describe performance. For the system integrator, it provides information on the entire system: scene-to-observer.


PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Calibration sources Video chip size Signal-to-noise ratio
Camera formula Antibloom drain Correlated double sampling
Video formats  Spectral response Minimum resolvable contrast
Photodetection Dynamic range Shade's equivalent resolution
202 figures, 52 tables, 231 references, 378 + xxiv pages




  3-MUESTREO , ALIASING Y FIDELIDAD DE DATOS
SAMPLING, ALIASING, and DATA FIDELITY
Gerald C. Holst
For

-Electronic Imaging Systems
-Communications
-Data Acquisition

This book bridges the gap between sampling theory, signal appearance, and system performance. It covers both temporal and spatial sampling to ensure that a true end-to-end analysis is considered. While many electrical circuit designs approximately satisfy the sampling theorem, most electronic imaging systems are undersampled and this leads to aliasing.

We cannot see digital data that reside in a computer memory. All methods to represent digital data include a reconstruction filter. The filter selection significantly affects the appearance of back-of-the-envelope drawings. The effects of this essential filter are described in detail.

The system designer will maximize MTFs for some applications. In other applications, edge detection and signal width are important. This book provides both approaches. For the software specialist, this book provides the link between digital and analog data. Software cannot be effective if the sampling device characteristics and reconstruction processes are not known.


PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Phasing effects Simulations
Pixels on target Windowing
Moiré °atterns Linear system theory
Reconstruction filters System analysis
Sampling devices Resampling
Anti-alias filters Displays
231 figures, 20 tables, 152 references, 326 + xviii pages




THE COMPLETE SYSTEM END-TO-END ANALYSIS BOOK

  4-PERFORMANCE DE SISTEMAS ELECTRO-OPTICOS DE IMÁGENES
ELECTRO-OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Gerald C. Holst


A consolidation of reference material needed to design, analyze, and evaluate imaging system performance. The information is integrated from a wide range of subjects in which the analyst must be conversant: target characterization, atmospheric effects, optics, detectors, electronics, displays, and human perception of image quality. The material could otherwise only be obtained by sifting through dozens of textbooks and journal articles. Although emphasis is placed on infrared systems, the principles apply to all imaging systems operating in the visible region of the spectrum.

Using the engineering approach, simple equations are provided for all subsystem MTFs. When appropriate, approximations are supplied to avoid complex equations. All MTFs are supported by numerous graphs for easy interpretation.

Describes the three-dimensional noise model and various performance models with emphasis on FLIR92. Limitations of back-of-the-envelope approximations are discussed. Clarifies the difference between resolution and sensitivity. Optimized system performance is illustrated through numerous trade-off analyses.


PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Subsystem MTFs SNR optimization
Image motion Target signatures
Image quality metrics  Î"T concept
Atmospheric transmittance Johnson criteria
Resolution 3-D noise model
Atmospheric turbulence MRC, MRT, and MDT
Optimum sampling System trades
3-5 versus 8-12 μm FLIR92
250 figures, 44 tables, 282 references, 468 + xviii pages


  SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE ANALIZADOR DE SISTEMAS DE IMÁGENES


System Image Analyzer  (SIA) System Image Analyzer (SIA) is a powerful software program that brings your optical software to life. It allows you analyze and predict performance of any imaging system. You can optimize your system design and thereby minimize cost. SIA provides imagery that has been modified by component MTFs, corrupted by aliasing, and degraded by
noise.

Only SIA provides complete end-to-end imagery. Undersampled imagery produces aliasing and moiré °atterns that appear in your SIA imagery. SIA convolves the system SIA's modulation transfer function (MTF) with any bit-map scene. The imagery is useful in the classroom, helping customers understand system design limitations, and for proposals, final reports, and research papers.

For maximum flexibility, SIA operates in a modular format. You select the combination of modules to simulate your system. CCD cameras, TVs, displays, machine vision systems, line scanners, infrared scanning, and infrared staring simulated imagery can be analyzed in detail.


MTF Analysis

The subsystem that limits your system response becomes readily apparent through MTF analysis. Similarly, over-specified subsystems are easily identified. The scene is spatially sampled due to the discrete locations of the detector elements. SIA indicates Nyquist frequency location (defined as one-half of the sampling frequency). SIA provides the MTF as a function of both object and image spatial frequencies. These are expressed in cycles/mrad and cycles/mm. Both the vertical and horizontal MTFs are graphed on scales you select. They are outputted to your printer. The component (subsystem) MTF values are printed or saved in a file for future off-line analyses. You can highlight any of the 18 user-friendly, self-explanatory modules:

Atmospheric turbulence Defocused optics Video filters
CCD diffusion Observer (eye) Charge transfer efficiency
Scene  Detector D/A (sample-and-hold)
Monitor Optical aberration Motion (random and linear)
Electronic filters Diffraction Time-delay-and-integrate
Digital filters Sample-scene phase User defined


Two-dimensional transform analysis

Sampling replicates image frequencies that become obvious in the 2-D transform. Sampling effects are minimized by inserting SIA's reconstruction filters. These transforms are outputted to your printer or saved as bit maps.

Requires PC with Microsoft Windows 3.1, Windows95 or Windows NT with 8-MB ram and 4-MB hard drive space.

 


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